Measurement of non-equilibrium in high-speed hydrogen jet flames using spontaneous Raman scattering

Speaker: Dr. Philip Varghese
Date: Nov 3, 2023; Time: 2:30 PM Location: UTEB 175

Abstract: Mixing-induced vibrational non-equilibrium was studied in the turbulent shear layer between a high-speed jet and a surrounding hot-air co-flow. The vibrational and rotational temperatures of N2 and O2 were determined by fitting measured spontaneous Raman scattering spectra to a model that allows for different vibrational and rotational temperatures. The mixing of the jet fluid with the co-flow gases occurs over microsecond time scales, which is sufficiently fast to induce vibrational non-equilibrium in the mixture of hot and cold gases. The effect of fluctuating temperatures on the time-averaged Raman measurement was quantified using single-shot Rayleigh thermometry. The Raman scattering results were found to be insensitive to fluctuations except where the flame is present intermittently. Vibrational non-equilibrium was detected in nitrogen but not in oxygen. This difference between species temperatures violates the two-temperature assumption often used in the modeling of high-temperature non-equilibrium flow. A multiple-pass cell was constructed to obtain single-shot Raman scattering measurements in the turbulent shear layer using a pulsed stretched laser. These measurements agreed with the previous time-average results and allowed us to make measurements near the fluctuating base of a lifted flame – a region where time-averaged measurements do not give meaningful results.

Biographical Sketch: Prof. Philip L. Varghese holds the Ernest H. Cockrell Centennial Chair in Engineering at The University of Texas at Austin and has an international reputation in the areas of rarefied and non-equilibrium flows and optical diagnostics for combustion and plasmas. He received his Bachelor of Technology degree from the Indian Institute of Technology in Madras in 1976, an MS from Syracuse University in 1977, and a PhD from Stanford University in 1983 all in Mechanical Engineering. He was a post-doctoral Scholar in the Molecular Physics Laboratory at SRI International and joined UT Austin in 1983 in the department of Mechanical Engineering. He was promoted to Associate Professor in 1988 and transferred to Aerospace Engineering in 1989. He was promoted to full Professor in 1995 and has been the Director of the Center for Aeromechanics Research since 1999. He served as Chair of the Department from 2009-2012.

Among numerous awards he was Fulbright Senior Scholar in France in 1993 and was awarded the Boeing-A.D. Welliver Faculty Fellowship by the Boeing Company in 1998. He received the Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company Award for Excellence in Engineering Teaching in Spring 2003, and was elected to the Academy of Distinguished Teachers at the University of Texas in 2005. In February 2012 he was selected Professor of the Year by the Senate of College Councils at UT Austin and was awarded The University of Texas System Regents’ Outstanding Teaching Award in August 2016.

Dr. Varghese’s research focuses on understanding the basic molecular processes occurring in high speed, high temperature, and non-equilibrium flows. This is an inter-disciplinary field, requiring a synthesis of physics and chemistry with the more traditional engineering disciplines of fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics. He applies his work to the study of hypersonic and rarefied flows, plasmas, and combustion. He has established a laser diagnostics laboratory for experimental studies in combustion and plasma discharges. He also has an active program in planetary scale simulations of rarefied flows and has developed a novel technique for accurate solutions of the Boltzmann equation using quasi-particle simulation. His research publications have been extensively referenced and a recent search showed over 3800 citations of his work on Google Scholar. He is co-inventor on six US patents related to applications of Raman spectroscopy.


Published: October 9, 2023

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